Microbiology (angol nyelven)

Course title: Microbiology
Number of classes/week: 2+0+0, Terminal exam
Course credits: 3+0+0
Course instructor: Dr. habil. Levente Karaffa, Ph.D., Associate Professor
Condition of enrollment for the course: -
Short description of the course: The aim of this course is two-fold: first, it is to obtain a general understanding of the microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, yeasts, viruses), that includes their classification, metabolism, the way they interact with their environment and with other living organisms such as plants, animals and humans. We will characterize the cellular biology of the microorganisms (cell wall, cell membrane, intracellular structures), and will analyse their functions. Energy metabolism and reproduction will also be discussed. Classification of bacteria will be based on the Second Edition of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Secondly, the course will also deal with the applied aspects of microbiology including industrial fermentations (biogas, ethanol, hydrogen formation), environmental applications (bioremediation, biodegradation), agricultural as well as food technologies (preservation, food and feed production).
Compulsory/ Recommended literature, readings (in English):
  • Lecture files
  • Tortora G, Funke BR, Case CL (2003): Microbiology: an Introduction (Benjamin Cummings, 8th edition)
  •             Black, Jacquelyn G. (2005): Microbiology: Principles and Explorations, 6th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, NJ, USA.
  • Mycology Series, 21 (2003): Fungal Biotechnology in Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Applications (Arora, DK, ed.). CRC Press, New York, NY, USA.
Week I. Principles of Microbiology
Introduction – microorganisms and microbiology. A brief journey to the microbial world. Chemistry of cellular components. Cell structure and function in Bacteria and Archaea. Nutrition and culture of microorganisms. Microbial growth.
Week II. Microbial metabolism I.
Microbial biochemistry. Carbon catabolism and anabolism. Regulation of carbon metabolism. Carbohydrates and lipids. Carbon source vs. energy source.. Amino acid biosynthesis and its regulation. Nucleic acid metabolism.
Week III. Microbial metabolism II.
Microbial genetics. Structure and composition of DNA and RNA. Sexual and asexual processes. Parasexual cycle. Regulation of Gene Expression. Protein synthesis and degradation.
Week IV. Molecular Biology of Microorganisms
Essentials of Molecular Biology. Archaeal and Eukaryotic Molecular Biology. Overview of Viruses and Virology. Principles of Bacterial Genetics. Genetic Engineering. Microbial Genomics.
Week V. Microbial Diversity
Microbial Evolution and Systematics. Bacteria: The Proteobacteria. Bacteria: Gram-Positive and Other Bacteria. Archaea. Eukaryotic Cell Biology and Eukaryotic Microorganisms. Viral Diversity.
Week VI. Metabolic Diversity and Microbial Ecology
Metabolic Diversity: Photography, Autotrophy, Chemolithotrophy, and Nitrogen Fixation. Metabolic Diversity: Catabolism of Organic Compounds. Methods in Microbial Ecology. Microbial Ecosystems. Nutrient Cycles, Bioremediation, and Symbioses.
Week VII. Industrial microbiology: Upstream processing
Bioreactor instrumentation and control. Sensors. Control systems – manual and automatic control. On-line analysis. Sterilization. Cell morphology. Inoculum preparation. Batch, fed-batch and continuous fermentation systems.
Week VIII. Industrial microbiology: Downstream processing
Recovery and purification. Filtration, centrifugation, cell disruption, liquid-liquid extraction, solvent recovery, chromatography, crystallization, whole-broth processing. Fermentation analytics. Physical, chemical and biological (aerobic and anaerobic) treatment of the effluent. Fermentation economics.
Week IX. Microbial enzymes
Bioprocesses engineering of enzymes. Enzyme isolation. Classification of enzymes of industrial importance. Enzyme kinetics. Enzyme reactions in homogenous and heterogenous phase. Bioconversions. Enzyme immobilization.
Week X. Microbial bulk products
Biomass production (SCP). Amino acid processes. Organic acid processes. Vitamin C and vitamin B12 production. Biofuels – general outlook, classification, economic importance. Antibiotics – history, biosynthesis, biotechnology, application.
Week XI. Immunology
Essentials of Immunology. Immunology in Host Defense and Disease. Molecular Immunology.
Week XII. Medical and veterinary microbiology
Diagnosing and Tracking Infectious Diseases. Major microbial agents of human and animal disease. Diagnostic Microbiology and Immunology. Epidemiology.
Week XIII. Microbial Diseases
Person-to-person microbial diseases. Vectorborne and soilborne microbial diseases. Wastewater treatment, water purification, and waterborne microbial diseases. Food preservation and foodborne microbial diseases.
Week XIV. Important microorganisms in agriculture and industry
Penicillium sps, Aspergillus sps, Trichoderma sps., Rhizopus sps., Saccharomyces sps, Zymomonas sps, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Brevibacterium sps.,
Week XV. Important microorganisms in agriculture and industry
Lactobacillus, Lactococcus,Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Carnobacterium, Weisella, Azotobacter chroococcum, Streptomyces sps., Botrytis cinerea, Plasmopara viticola, Uncinula necator.